In 1976, the government approved the National School Health Policy for all schools under 4 different Ministries: Ministries of Health, Education, Religious and Home Affairs with the aim of meeting the target of quality education and health for all children. The UKS program is covering not only WASH but Sanitation in Schools including environmental health, nutrition in schools, and regular health monitoring (dental and immunization).
The government’s school Sanitation target is to reach 100% of schools by 2014. The Ministry of Education is the lead agency in the daily implementation of the UKS (Usaha Kesehatan Sekolah) program. Several agencies are supporting the revision of UKS, such as UNICEF, as well as AusAID and WHO, to be able to advocate for revitalization of this program. Other Ministries such as Public Works and Environment are supporting the UKS program. In the context of the decentralization, the 4 Ministries advocated to the local government to implement the UKS program in all schools.
AusAID, Dubai Cares Foundation, USAID and World Bank are currently the major donors for Sanitation in Schools. UNICEF, WHO, Care, Save the Children, Plan International, IRD, Indonesian Toilets Association, Indonesian private sector (The Sosro, Coca Cola, Unilever) and Indonesian Universities are partners for Sanitation in Schools.
For the past 6 years, the UNICEF WASH unit has supported the development of the National Guideline for School Sanitation including resource materials to promote hygiene education and designs of the Water and sanitation facilities in schools, as well as participatory guidelines on school-based management related to School Sanitation.
UNICEF invested as well on capacity building of the national and local governments to implement school sanitation and to replicate this program using government funds to reach the target of 2014. UNICEF and other key partners under the line ministry are advocating emphasising the importance of School Sanitation to reach not only the students and teachers, but the communities as part of the National target for Sanitation. As an example, the School Sanitation program will be represented as a key component during the National Conference on Sanitation.
In several locations, UNICEF succeeded to advocate the local government to allocate proper funds to implement WASH in Schools.
According to a recent Ministry of Health data, only up to 12% of children aged between 5 and 14 years old wash their hands with soap after defecating, 14% wash their hands with soap before eating and 35% wash their hands with soap after eating. The MDG Report for Indonesia (2008) shows the following: The proportion of pupils starting grade one who complete primary school is 74.1% The proportion of people using an improved drinking water source is 57.2% The proportion of people using an improved sanitation facility (urban and rural) is 69.3%.