Enabling Policy Environment for Wash in Schools

  • djiboutiThe 2009 Djibouti School Hygiene and Sanitation Survey (SHSS 2009) is the first national-level school survey to be conducted in Djibouti under the C4D standardizes survey which is funded by UNICEF. The SHSS 2009 was carried out in order to provide national data on sanitation and hygiene in schools. Also, the survey provides information about knowledge, attitudes and practices of school teachers and students about sanitation and hygiene practices that could be used to develop a communication intervention in this respect. The Survey looked at both the hardware and software components of WASH in Schools (Quantitative and Qualitative assessments -KAP).
  • The Ministry of Education is the lead agency in overseeing the implementation of the National Action Plan with involvement from the Ministry of Health and the Ministry in charge of water.
  • The adoption of the “Child-Friendly School” by the Ministry of Education has brought increased attention to school infrastructure and WASH needs. WASH is recognized by the government as an important intervention required for achieving the education goals.
  • UNICEF is currently the major donor for WASH in Schools. Other partners like AfD and Dubai Cares are interested to invest in this domain.


Quality and Coverage of WASH in Schools Programming

Since 2008, UNICEF has supported the development of resource materials to promote hygiene education and piloted the materials in target primary schools. The “WASH in Schools” toolkit incorporates key messages into a set of teachers guidebooks, story cards, songs, word cards, posters, cartoon booklets and games. In 2011, a joint committee (Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry in charge of water), with the support of UNICEF will conduct an evaluation of the toolkit to gain a better understanding of hygiene education in schools and assess its impact with both qualitative and quantitative evidence. 42% of the schools have access to treated water. In the rural areas, 9 out of 10 schools do not have access to quality water. Only 6% of the schools in Djibouti (7) comply with the norm of one tap for every 50 students. Only 2 schools in Djibouti comply with the 5 criteria.

Wash related data

-Coverage water supply 92% (JMP 2008); 98% urban, 452% ruralØ
CoverageØ sanitation 56% (JMP 2008); 63% urban, 10% rural WASH in Schools related data (finding from WASH survey 2009)
Recent national surveys estimate that the primary school enrollment rate stands at 73%. Djibouti is on track to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2015, with gender parity rates of 0.99 and 0.82 respectively (in 2006).


Water quality; 73% urban and 13%. Only 6% of the schools in Djibouti (7) comply with the norm of  one tap for every 50 students; 42% of the schools have access to treated water. In the rural areas, 9 out of 10 school do not have access to quality water; Students with access to drinking water in their school rated very low the quality of cleanliness of the water and the drinking points.


Percentage of schoosl meeting WHO standards: WC sufficient and accessible 18, WC watched 42%, WC  provide privacy 62%, WC clean (smell) 47 and WC clean (smell and clean)


Almost all of the children recognized the importance of hand washing. Wash hands after going to bathroom urban 95% and rural96%, use clean water urban 85% and rural 81%. Mass media is the main source of information (82%), followed by the school (73%), then family and relatives (51%). Television is the main sourcefor school students in urban areas, where teachers were the main source of information for school
students in rural areas (66%).


Organizations Working in Wash in Schools