Enabling Policy Environment for Wash in Schools

  • Currently, there is no separate national action and budget plan for WASH in Schools; WASH is integrated in the school construction plan with WASH mentioned and implemented through various projects. However, WASH especially sanitation is often ignored during the planning and implementation at the subnational levels.
  • The Ministry of Education is the lead agency for health and WASH in Schools, with the National Health and Family Planning Commission providing technical assistance and the Ministry of Water Resources being mandated to bring water to the schools in rural areas.
  • UNICEF started the cooperation with Ministry of Education on WASH in Schools in 2006. In 2010-2015 programme cycle, the cooperation demonstration project covers 330 rural primary schools in 13 counties of 7 provinces with local education authority’s hands-on implementation with technical institutions providing technical support and monitoring.

Quality and Coverage of WASH in Schools Programming


  • School/student health is part of the school management and the government has set standards and issued guidelines from time to time, which also include some standards and indicators for WASH. With UNICEF’s support, a national guideline for school latrine and construction was released in 2004 by MOE and MOH. In 2011, the Ministry of Education together with the then Ministry of Health issued a national regulation on health and living facilities in boarding schools, in which WASH is included. The government standard for water provision in schools (for drinking and hygiene) is 20 liters per pupil per day, pupils to latrine/toilet ratio is 30 boys for 1 toilet, and 13 girls for 1 toilet respectively, pupils to handwashing stand is 50 students for 1 tap.
  • In general, WASH standards are not enforced strictly in schools; monitoring and assessment is also very weak. Two indicators about school water supply and school latrine were integrated into the Education Management Information System (EMIS) in 2010. To date, two years of data in 2011 and 2012 has been collected and analyzed by the Ministry of Education. By 2012, 56.9% of primary and middle schools had access to piped water supply; 57.9% of primary and middle schools had access to sanitary latrines. The urban and rural disparity of school water supply and latrine is huge.




Organizations Working in Wash in Schools


Ministry of Education